Broccoli is not only delicious but also has many health benefits. What’s more, your method of growing broccoli is not complicated. It’s easy to learn how to grow broccoli successfully.
Plot and Variety Selection
Loam and sandy loam are more suitable for Broccoli’s growth, and plots are required to have irrigation and drainage conditions so that drought irrigation and flood drainage can be achieved.
Broccoli can be divided into three types according to maturity stage: early, medium, and late maturity.
Heat-resistant and early-maturing varieties should be selected for summer and autumn production.
Winter production should choose cold-resistant, compact plant type, compact flower ball of medium – ripe or early-maturing varieties.
Broccoli can be cultivated in spring and autumn with the best quality in autumn.
In spring, the protected land was sown from March 10 to 15, and transplanted from April 15 to 20, and the harvest was in early June.
From June 25 to July 5 in autumn, shading net covering sowing and seedling, from 20 to 31 in July, planting, harvest in early September.
1. Preparation of Matrix
Seedling substrate should be selected peat, vermiculite, perlite preparation, each cubic meter to add 1.5 kg potassium sulfate compound fertilizer, 50% carbendazim 150 grams fully mix evenly to be used.
2. Sowing Methods
The standard seedling tray with 128 holes was selected, and the substrate material was put into the tray and neatly placed on the seedling bed.
Pour permeable water before sowing, sow 1 seed in each hill-hole, and cover 0.5 cm thick substrate after sowing.
After sowing seedlings in spring-protected land, cover with plastic film to increase temperature and moisturize；2 layers of sun shading net are spread after sowing in autumn to shade and prevent rain.
3. Seedling Management
In spring, the daytime temperature before seedling emergence was 20℃ ~ 25℃, and the night temperature was 10℃ ~ 15℃.
After emergence, 15℃ ~ 20℃ in the daytime and 8℃ ~ 10℃ at night; 5 ~ 7 days before transplanting, the seedlings were trained at low temperature to adapt to external conditions.
After sowing should pay attention to water, often keep the soil moist, seedling bed seedlings can be about 3 days, to timely peel the straw.
Maintain soil relative humidity of 70%-80% at the seedling stage. Supplement water as appropriate after seedling.
Summer seedling, the seedling period should pay special attention to the prevention and control of yellow jump beetle and cabbage insect damage.
Remove the sunshade net 7 -10 days before transplanting, so that the seedlings are fully exposed to light. Broccoli seedling standard: plant height about 15 cm, stem diameter 0.6-0.8 cm, number of leaves 4-5.
When 60% of seedlings emerge in autumn, set up sunshade nets in time.
The seedling of the acupoint dish substrate should be checked frequently, the moisture status of substrate material should not be too dry or too wet, and the upper and lower should be controlled appropriately.
According to the growth of seedlings, 0.1% ~ 0.3% urea and 0.1% ~ 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution should be applied outside the root.
Strong seedling standards are, seedlings up to 3 true leaves, short stem nodes leave a dark green, developed roots, no insects harm.
Combined with acres of organic fertilizer 1500 ~ 2000 kg or chicken manure dry 2000 kg, potassium sulfate compound fertilizer 25 kg, borax 2 ~ 3 kg.
After rotation tillage, ridge, ridge distance 110 cm, furrow depth 25 cm, after suppression to be planted, spring planting to cover film.
Planting form adopts big ridge double row, small row spacing 45 ~ 50 cm, about 3300 seedlings on arces.
The pollination method is artificial pollination in the budding period. The buds of 2-4 days before flowering are peeled with tweezers to expose the pistil, and the pollen that blossoms on the same day is applied to the stigma of the pistil with tweezers, which can be seen clearly by the naked eye.
To ensure seed purity, pollinators and hands should be cleaned with 75% alcohol each time before entering the net.
Before harvesting the top flower, according to the soil conditions and the growth of the side branches left during pruning, 7-10 days before the main flower bulb harvesting, combined with watering, a proper amount of topdressing can be carried out to harvest larger side flower bulbs, prolong the harvest period and improve the yield.
Approximately the main flower bulb is the main flower bulb, generally, 1-2 side branches can be left for each plant, according to the requirements of quick freezing can be left 4-6 side branches.
According to our experimental results, every 667 square meters can add 200 kilograms, high-quality flower rate can reach 30% or so.
- Variety selection: heat-resistant and early-maturing varieties should be selected for summer and autumn production;Winter production should choose cold – resistant, compact plant type, compact flower ball of medium – ripe or early – maturing varieties.
2. Soil: with nutrition cup seedlings to prepare good nutrition soil.
3. Sowing: use a nutrient cup to sow and raise seedlings, wet nutrient soil before sowing, sow 1 seed in each cup, and cover with thin soil after sowing.
4. Seedling management: after sowing should pay attention to water, often keep the soil moist, seedling bed seedlings for about 3 days can be completely seedlings, timely peel the straw.
- Watering: broccoli like fat water, avoid hot, drought, generally 5-7 days to water once, to water thoroughly. Drainage should be timely in rainy season to avoid root rot.
- Topdressing: topdressing is mainly nitrogen fertilizer, timely topdressing in stages.
- Soil: before fertilization to loosen the soil, hoe, after fertilization to soil.
6. Broccoli’s common main diseases and insect pests are black spots, downy mildew, aphids, cabbage insect, cabbage moth, yellow stripe armor, cabbage moth, etc.
7. Harvesting: the top bulb has been fully expanded, bud has not yet opened, hand bud particles slightly loose for the appropriate harvest, should be harvested in time. The high-temperature period should be 1-2 days in advance to harvest, avoid late harvest caused by a loose ball or flowering, reduce product quality. When harvesting, the lower part of the flower bulb with about 10 cm of flower stem is cut together.