Amaryllis, bulbs subglobose, leaves 6-8, drawn after anthesis, bright green, stems hollow, slightly flattened, with whitish-pink; Tether green, cylindric, tether lobes oblong, apical, magenta, greenish, throat with small scales.
Like warm, humid climate, suitable for growth temperature of 18 ~ 25℃, do not like heat, sunshine should not be too strong, should be placed under the greenhouse maintenance. Fear of flooding.
Winter dormant period, cold and wet climate, 10 ~ 12℃ is appropriate, not less than 5℃. Likes rich humus, well-drained sandy loam.
If the soil moisture in winter is high and the temperature exceeds 25℃, the growth of stems and leaves is vigorous and prevents dormancy, which will directly affect the normal flowering of the next year.
The growth and flowering of Amaryllis were also affected by light. Long-time direct sunlight should be avoided in summer and sufficient sunlight should be used in winter cultivation.
The soil requires loose, fertile sandy loam, pH 5.5 ~ 6.5, avoid water.
Native to Brazil. The precious pure white variety was bred in the United States in 1920.
The Netherlands and Japan have also made great achievements in inbreeding. Amaryllis has a wide range of horticultural varieties.
Amaryllis, originally from the Andes mountains of Peru, was introduced to Europe in 1769. Amaryllis native to the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, was introduced to Europe in 1633.
Amaryllis is commonly propagated by seeding, pelleting, and cutting.
Namely, pick namely sow, germination rate is high. The sowing soil was mixed with 2 parts peat soil and 1 part river sand.
The seed is larger, suitable for seeding, the spacing is 2 ~ 3 cm, the suitable temperature for germination is 15 ~ 20℃, 10 ~ 15 days to sprout, 2 pieces of true leaf time seedling. It takes two to three years from sowing to flowering.
Old bulbs can produce 2 to 3 small bulbs a year, which can be removed and planted separately.
Be careful not to damage the root of the bulb and leave the top of the bulb exposed to the ground. The bulb takes about 2 years to bloom.
Use artificial chop more blooms ball, the mother bulb longitudinal cut into several pieces, again in the middle is divided into two and a half, the bottom attached to each part of the bulb plate as the root, then the cuttings in peat soil mixed with the sand of cuttings bed, appropriate water, after 6 weeks, between the scales can be in 1 ~ 2 balls, and takes root in the lower part. Such a mother bulb can produce nearly 100 young bulbs.
Amaryllis is easy to set, artificial pollination is feasible at the flowering stage, and seeds mature after 2 months.
After harvest that sowing, germination rate is high. After sowing in half shade, and keep wet and 15~18℃ temperature, half a month can germinate.
If the temperature reached 18~20℃, after 10 days of germination. Seed propagation takes 3 to 4 years to bloom.
Bulb propagation in March to April, the mother bulb around the small ball removed for planting, planting should be exposed to the top of the small bulb surface.
The bulb is cut lengthwise into several pieces, then cut into scales and inserted diagonally into vermiculite or sand. Plant when 2 true leaves grow.
When planting false bulbs, the basin soil is too easy, will delay the flowering or reduce the number of flowers, can use sandy loam 5, peaty soil 2 and sand 1 mixed soil, planting depth to bulb 1/3 exposed soil surface is better.
Amaryllis blooms in April in spring and again in winter. Management should be strengthened early to promote flowering.
- Change the pot. Amaryllis grows fast and should be changed into suitable POTS after one year of growth.
2. Change soil. To promote the growth and flowering of the New Year, Amaryllis basin soil should be replaced with new soil.
3. Ramet. Amaryllis grows fast. After one or two years of growth, there are a lot of small bulbs growing on the head. Therefore, the plant was divided into one pot for large plants, one pot for medium plants, and one-pot for small plants.
4. Fertilize. Amaryllis should apply base fertilizer at the same time as pot changing, soil changing, and planting. After pot planting, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should be applied once a month. The principle of fertilization is thin and frequent application to promote flower bud differentiation and flowering.
5. Trim. Amaryllis grows fast and its leaves are long and dense. The withered leaves, dead roots, diseases, and insect pests should be cut off at the same time when changing pot and soil, leaving vigorous leaves.
6. Prevention and control of diseases and insect pests. To make Amaryllis grow vigorously and blossom as early as possible, disease and insect pest control should be carried out, and another spraying should be carried out once a month. Anther spraying should be carried out at 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. on sunny days, and spraying should not be carried out in the hot sun at noon to prevent pesticide harm.
The above six points are the work that Amaryllis spring management should focus on.
Because Amaryllis is not tolerant to cold, it must be well managed over winter.
Dig out bulbs in early October (pay attention not to damage), cut off the upper stems and leaves, wash the root-soil, or dry in the sun or shade, until the bulb epidermis and shear mouth dry, put in the dry room or concentrated sand.
Those with soil in their original basins for the winter must be placed in a greenhouse. Basin soil must be kept dry.
If the soil is too wet and the plant continues to grow, it will prevent dormancy and normal flowering the following year.
Winter humidity is large, the flower buds in the bulb are perishable, resulting in no flowers the next year. Potted plants overwintered earlier than dry storage plants.
The treatment method of overwintering in the open field is simple, the leaves are cut off at the end of autumn and the beginning of winter, and the scale balls are choked with soil or covered with straw.
Wintering plants in open fields grow vigorously next year. The buds thrive but are prone to decay in rainy and snowy areas and poor sunlight and ventilation.
Amaryllis seedlings should be kept in a greenhouse, watered and nourished, and kept alive during the winter so that they can grow quickly in the spring. Adult bulbs can be obtained earlier by this method.
Management of Maintenance
Cut off the stems of Amaryllis as soon as they have flowered and faded. Because the post-flowering stage is mainly to nourish the bulbs, allowing them to absorb nutrients, allowing them to grow and produce new bulbs, cutting off the pedicel concentrates nutrients on the bulbs.
After the flower management, in addition to reducing the amount of watering, but also should pay attention to the basin soil that can not water, to avoid rotten bulbs.
After flower still needs 20 days or so to apply 1 cake fertilizer water, to promote the bulb increase and germination of new bulbs, until November after the move into the greenhouse, to stop pouring fertilizer, control watering, maintain the bulb is not dry.
Water: Keep plants moist and water them thoroughly. But avoid excessive water, poor drainage. General indoor air humidity can.
Fat: Like fat. During the growth period, fertilization should be applied once every half month along with the growth of leaves. Fertilization should be stopped at flowering and continued after flowering, with phosphorus and potassium fertilizer as the main fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer reduced. Fertilization can be stopped at the end of autumn. Potted plants can be added with some superphosphate as a base fertilizer.
Soil: Sandy loam rich in organic matter, well-drained, and heavy soil should be avoided.
Temperature: Winter dormancy can be cold and dry. The optimum growth temperature is 5℃~10℃.
Light: Like sunshine, can be the right amount of direct sunlight, not too long. Appropriate place in bright light, good ventilation, no direct sunlight in front of the window.
Propagation: Pelleting, sowing, bulb cutting, and tissue culture propagation are available. To divide the ball reproduction mainly. Peel off the small balls around the mother bulb, cut off the residual roots, dry for two days can be cultivated, the ball should be shallowly planted so that 1/3 to 1/2 on the soil surface. After watering 1 time in the basin, waiting for the new leaves to be watered again, in addition to timely cutting off the residual leaves, late autumn, and early winter to be withered, choose to dig bulbs in the sunny days and put them in the indoor storage of cool air circulation.
The main diseases are virus disease, spot disease, nematode disease, and red spot disease.
Blotchy: Round or fusiform reddish-brown spots affecting leaves, flowers, scape, and bulbs, especially in autumn. Diseased leaves should be removed; Soak bulbs in 0.5% formalin solution for 2 hours before planting, and spray the same amount of Bordeaux solution regularly in spring.
Virus disease: Causes root and leaf rot of Amaryllis, causes leaf and stem flower disease after the invasion, and gradually spreads to bulb direction. Bulbs need to be soaked in 43℃ warm water with 0.5% formalin for 3-4 hours to achieve the control effect.
Nematodes: Nematodes invade mainly from stomata on leaf and flower stem, causing disease on leaf and flower stem after the invasion, and gradually spread to bulb direction. Bulbs need to be soaked in 43℃ warm water with 0.5% formalin for 3-4 hours to achieve the control effect. Insect pests have red spider harm, can be 40% dichloride dicofol emulsion 1000 times liquid spray.
Stagonospora curtisii: Round or fusiform reddish-brown spots on leaves, flowers, scapes, and bulbs, especially in autumn. Diseased leaves should be removed; Soak with 0.5% formalin solution for 2 hours before planting, and spray Bordeaux solution for prevention in spring. The insect pest has a red spider. Spray 90% insecticide powder 1000 times liquid.
Suitable for potted decoration of homes, living rooms, and corridors. It can also be cultivated in the garden or with flower beds. Can also be used as fresh-cut flowers.